Implementing Learning Technology
Hopefully you will have found the contents of Implementing
Learning Technology interesting and useful and you will want to
go further - to embark on a new implementation, to review existing
usage of learning technology or to plan an evaluation of the use
of technology in teaching. So, where do we go from here?
Based on the principal that we learn best from our mistakes
- or at least from active participation - the best place to start
is probably to get involved in the process of planning and implementing
technology into your own teaching. It would be unrealistic to
suggest that this is an easy task, but teaching rarely is. However
integrating technology can be very rewarding - for both you and
your students - and need not be as daunting as it might appear
at first sight. In general the technical expertise required to
use existing learning technology in your teaching is relatively
low and there is a wealth of useful material available.
This publication is not the place to list the subject/domain
specific learning technology materials. However there is a lot
of courseware available, much of which has great potential value
in teaching and learning. In addition to commercial software,
a great deal of material has been produced under public funding
in the UK. Most of this material is available to UK higher education
institutions at very low cost. Further information on these projects
and initiatives is included in the LTDI Information Directory,
as are details of the subject specific CTI Centres - good sources
of advice on the availability of public sector and commercial
learning technology materials.
Of course another place to go to next is to LTDI. We offer
a range of services, including implementation help, all of which
are free to Scottish HEIs
The remainder of this chapter lists some resources that may
be useful to you in the process of implementing learning technology
into your teaching and evaluating the efficacy of your implementations.
The first section is an annotated bibliography of a selection
of reports, articles and books. The second section lists some
of the most relevant journals in this area.
An annotated bibliography
- CTI (1992) 'Computers in University Teaching - Core Tools for
Core Activities. A report from the computers in teaching initiative.'
Concise report looking ahead to Higher Education in 2000 and
the likely role for technology. Illustrated with analysis of current
position subject by subject.
- CSUP (1992) 'Teaching and Learning in an Expanding Higher Education
System - report of a working party of the committee of Scottish
University principals'. Known as "The MacFarlane Report"
Significant report which has been the catalyst for much change
and more debate about the role for technology in teaching and
learning, particularly within Scotland. A clear insight into the
challenges facing higher education in Scotland and the role of
technology in meeting them.
- Crook, Charles (1994)
'Computers and the collaborative experience of learning' Routledge,
An interesting text on the use of technology in teaching which
draws on cognitive psychology, discusses educational technology
from a socio-cultural perspective & concludes on the importance
of collaborative experience in the teaching and learning process.
- Darby J (1992) 'Computers in teaching and learning in U.K. higher
education' Computers Educ, 19,1/2,1-8.
This paper reviews the diversity of approaches to using learning
technology, drawing on information from UK and beyond.
- Davies P, & Brailsford T, (1994) 'New Frontiers of Learning
: Guidelines for Multimedia Courseware Developers in Higher Education',
One of the ITTI products, others are also useful. The ITTI
catalogue is reproduced in the LTDI Information Directory.
- Draper, S W, Brown, M I, Edgerton, E, Henderson, F P, McAteer,
Smith, E D, and Watt, H D (1994) 'Observing and Measuring the
Performance of Educational Technology TILT Project', University
Reflects on the first 15 months of the institutional TLTP project
at the University of Glasgow, in particular on how to evaluate
the educational effectiveness of using learning technology. A
detailed account of the TILT evaluation method - see chapters
11 & 12.
- Edwards J D (1993) 'Benefits, Uses, Potential and Pitfalls of
CBL', University of Bristol.
- Husat Research Institute (1994) 'The do and don't of video conferencing
in higher education.'
Focus on the hardware necessary, but part 2 discusses ways
to get started and highlights likely problems.
- Joint Information Systems Committee (1995) 'Exploiting Information
Systems in Higher Education : An Issues Paper'
Reviews existing and likely developments in information systems
over the next ten years.
- Kulik J.A, Kulik C.C, & Cohen P.A. (1980) 'Effectiveness of
Computer Based College Teaching: A meta analysis of findings';
Review of Educational Research, 50, 4, 525-544.
Meta analysis of 59 evaluations of computer based teaching.
Demonstrates a small but significant increase in student achievement.
- Kulik C.C, & Kulik J.A, (1991) 'Effectiveness of Computer
Based Instruction: An updated analysis'; Computers in Human Behaviour,
Meta analysis of findings from 254 studies into effectiveness
of computer based instruction. Demonstrates positive effect on
student performance. One of the best surveys of evaluation.
- Laurillard D (1993) 'Rethinking University Teaching - a framework
for the effective use of educational technology', Routledge, London
& New York.
An important and widely referenced book on the role of technology
in Higher education teaching and learning processes.
- LTDI (1996) 'LTDI Information Directory', LTDI, ICBL, Heriot-Watt
A directory of the main UK public sector initiatives and projects
related to information technology and teaching in the higher education
- MacFarlane, Alistair G J (1994) 'Future patterns of teaching and
Insights into the changing patterns of teaching and learning
and the role of technology in offering flexible and highly supportive
learning environments to extend participation in higher education.
- Mayes, T(1993) 'Commentary: Impact of cognitive theory on the
practice of courseware authoring' Journal of computer assisted
learning. Vol 9 pp 222-228
- Romiszowski, A.J. (1988) 'The Selection and Use of Instructional
Media' Kogan Page, London
- Smith, C. and Mayes, T, (1995) 'Telematics Applications for Education
and Training USABILITY GUIDE, Version 2, DGXIII 3/c', Commission
of the European Communities, Brussels
- Tessmer, M and Harris, D (1992) 'Analysing the Instructional Setting'
Kogan Page, London
- TLTP (1994) 'Copyright Guidelines for the Teaching and Learning
Technology Programme'. Copyright Working Party on behalf of the
TLTP Advisory Group
Invaluable and comprehensive source of information for courseware
- Whittlestone K, Howe G & Longstaffe A (1993) 'Getting Started
with Computer Based Learning'.
A short booklet aimed at absolute newcomers to learning technology.
- ALT - J: Association for Learning Technology (ALT), University
of Oxford, 13 Banbury Road, Oxford, OX2 6NN (0865 273281)
- Computers and Education: Centre for Academic Practice,
University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G1 1QE
- Journal of Computer Assisted Learning: Prof R Lewis, Dept
of Psychology, University of Lancaster, Lancaster LA1 4YF
- Education & Training Technology International: Association
for educational & training technology, Centre for Continuing
Education, The City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V
0HB (071 253 4399 x3276)
- Active Learning CTISS, University of Oxford, 13 Banbury
Road, Oxford, OX2 6NN (previously titled CTISS File)
- British Journal of Educational Technology, National Council
for Educational Technology, Milburn Hill Road, University Science
Park, Coventry, CV4 7JJ
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